Monday, April 16, 2012


The economy of contemporary India is a great paradox. It is a strange combination of outstanding achievements as well as grave failures. Since independence, India has achieved remarkable progress in overcoming its economic backwardness. From being a very poor country in the 1950s and a ‘basket case’ in the mid 1960s, it has emerged as the fourth largest economy in the world (in terms of purchasing power parity). Our economy has become one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Now the country is one of the leading players in the world knowledge economy with vast intellectual capital and booming software and information technology services. While our country has joined the league of the world’s top five fastest growing economies, we are in the bottom 20 among all countries in terms of the Human Development Index. While the country is celebrating its growth rate and technological wonders, it is witnessing social contradictions and the paradox and ironies of development. Thus, there are ‘two Indias’ in contemporary India.

1. Why is the Indian economy considered ‘a great paradox’?

(a) It is a leading player in information technology services with low levels of

(b) There is poverty amidst plenty in agricultural produce.

(c) It is one of the largest economies with low human development.

(d) It has scientific achievements with social contradictions.

2. Why is India being referred to as a leading player in the world knowledge economy?

(a) India’s knowledge base in science and technology is one of the world’s best.

(b) India has huge reserves of human intellectual capitals and information technology services.

(c) India is among the World’s five fastest growing economics and technology reserves.

(d) India has a huge reservoir of human capital and scientific knowledge export potential.

3. What does the author imply by the phrase ‘two Indias’ ?

(a) There is the India that has vast intellectual capital and the other that is largely

(b) There is the India of burgeoning growth and the India of widespread want and

(c) There is the India of progressive mindsets and the other who are socially

(d) There is an India of outstanding achievements combined with gigantic failures.

4. Consider the following statement and also the conclusions. Answer the question that follows:Statement : Education is in the Concurrent List. The State government cannot bring reforms in education without the consent of Central Government.

Conclusion I : For bringing about quick reforms in education, it should be in the State List .

Conclusion II: States are not willing to bring about quick reforms in Education.

Which one of the following is correct?

(a) Conclusion -I only follows from the statement.

(b) Conclusion -II only follows from the statement.

(c) Both conclusions I & II follow from the statement

(d) Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follow from the statement

5]“We need more clarity” — this has been the prevalent refrain among many private schools in Chennai for the last couple of months in regard to implementing the Right to Education (RTE) Act. With the Supreme Court upholding the constitutional validity of the Act and the Tamil Nadu State Government taking steps for its implementation, private schools cannot use lack of clarity as an excuse anymore.

While the Act envisages a series of reforms in school education, the clause on reserving 25 per cent of seats at the entry level for children belonging to weaker sections and disadvantaged groups has remained in focus.

Private schools have been using different strategies to escape from this clause. Some school heads said they were not sure how the government would reimburse the costs. A few private schools in Chennai sent out letters to parents, seeking to mobilise them against its implementation.

In fact, some schools went to the extent of telling parents: “Your child's quality of education will suffer seriously as the teachers will have a very difficult time managing and educating a few children who are not qualified for the particular class, or who are very difficult to manage.” Certain other schools claimed they were already enrolling children from economically weaker sections. However, such attempts have been rendered futile by the Supreme Court's verdict on Thursday. Now, what next?

The School Education Department has chalked out a detailed plan of action. A total of 12 Government Orders have been issued and the Directorate of Teacher Education Research and Training (DTERT) is the nodal agency for its implementation. Training programmes are being held to educate school heads. After quite a delay, the government has moved the files to constitute the State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCR).

6]Composite fish culture has emerged as a vital activity in recent years owing to high net return realized from this enterprise.

Nevertheless, there still exists a large gap in the demand and supply of fish. Intensive aquaculture is not feasible for the rural people as it is expensive and involves more risk.

The low input mixed farming systems in which fish culture is a component, using and regenerating the physical and biological resources efficiently, are more suitable as they are less risky and at the same time give more fish production because of easy adaptability.


The current aquaculture production can be increased to a greater extent if it can be integrated with dairy. Fish cum dairy farming is considered as an excellent innovation for effective utilization of organic wastes.

Composite fish culture comprising rohu, catla, mrigal and common carp can be fed with biogas slurry, cattle shed washings and other organic wastes for reducing the cost of feeding and to improve the growth and yield. Organic wastes on application help in the production of desired planktons, which is basic food for fish and these wastes serve as fertilizer nutrients and also consumed directly as source of feed.

Experiments conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore revealed that application of biogas slurry from the biogas plant at 15,000 kg ha of fish pond and cattle shed washings at 260 litres day-1 for 73 days as fish feed recorded 40.45 kg and 45.92 kg, respectively .


Feeding the fish with improved nutrient feed especially organic carbon and plankton status of fish pond, resulted in highest productivity.

Excess supply of cattle shed washings to fish pond resulted in mortality of fish due to high water temperature, carbon dioxide, alkalinity and low dissolved oxygen content of water in the fish pond.

Hence, for obtaining higher fish production and economic returns, growing of polyculture fish with cattle shed washings or biogas slurry as their feed is efficient and economical.

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