Read the following passage and answer the items that follow passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
Education, without a doubt, has an important functional, instrumental and utilitarian dimension. This is revealed when one asks questions such as 'what is the purpose of education?'. The answers, too often, are 'to acquire qualifications for employment/upward mobility', 'wider/higher (in terms of income) opportunities', and 'to meet the needs for trained human power in diverse field for national development'. But in its deepest sense education is not instrumentalist. That is to say, it is not to be justified outside of itself because it leads to the acquisition of formal skills or of certain desired psychological – social attributes. It must be respected in itself. Education is thus not a commodity to be acquired or possessed and then used, but a process of inestimable importance to individuals and society, although it can and does have enormous use value. Education then, is a process of expansion and conversion, not in the sense of conversion turning students into doctors or engineers, but the widening and turning out of the mind – the creation, sustenance and development of self-critical awareness and independence of thought. It is an inner process of moral-intellectual development.
16. What do you understand by the 'instrumentalist' view of education?
a) Education is functional and utilitarian in its purposes.
b) Education is meant to fulfill human needs
c) The purpose of education is to train the human intellect
d) Education is meant to achieve moral development
17. According to the passage, education must be respected in itself because
a) It helps to acquire qualifications for employment.
b) It helps in upward mobility and acquiring social status.
c) It is an inner process of moral and intellectual development
d) All the a), b) and c) given above are correct in this context.
18. Education is a process in which
a) Students are converted into trained professionals.
b) Opportunities for higher income are generated
c) individuals develop self-critical awareness and independence of thought
d) qualifications for upward mobility are acquired