The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in Kyoto in 1997, sets legally binding targets for developed countries to reduce emissions - a major feature of the pact. These amount to cuts of an average 5 per cent below the 1990 levels by 2012.
Prior to the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, but no mandatory limits on emissions were set.it was the real problem behind first earth summit.
The draft proposal prepared by the host nation Denmark for the climate change summit removes the distinction between the developed and the developing countries and will be disastrous for India.G-77 and China formally presented the BASIC draft - mooted by China and supported by Brazil, South Africa and India - at Copenhagen and said it should be the basis of negotiations.
India joined the U.S. and China in announcing voluntary emission intensity cuts a 20-25 per cent target reduction of the country's carbon emission intensity by 2025.
The G-77 held a coordination meeting in the eve of summit to decide their joint plan of action to ensure a fair and equitable outcome from Copenhagen.
India has said it can reduce carbon emission intensity by 20-25% by 2020, it can actually do much better.Even if growth averages a high 8%, better technology and more competition could see a reduction upto 37% in emission intensity with 2005 as the base year.